New behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and responses Information processing leads to understanding and retention We construct our own knowledge of the world based on individual experiences Behaviorism Behaviorism stems from the work of B.
Development[ edit ] Nicholas Onuf is usually credited with coining the term "constructivism" to describe theories that stress the socially constructed character of international relations. Nevertheless, Alexander Wendt is the best-known advocate of social constructivism in the field of international relations.
By attempting to show that even such a core realist concept as " power politics " is socially constructed—that is, not given by nature and hence, capable of being transformed by human practice—Wendt opened the way for a generation of international relations scholars to pursue work in a wide range of issues from a constructivist perspective.
Wendt further developed these ideas in his central work, Social Theory of International Politics John Ruggie  and Christian Reus-Smit  have identified several strands of constructivism.
On the one hand, there are constructivist scholars such as Martha FinnemoreKathryn SikkinkPeter KatzensteinElizabeth Kier, and Alexander Wendt, whose work has been widely accepted within the mainstream IR community and has generated vibrant scholarly discussions among realistsliberalsinstitutionalistsand constructivists.
On the Behavioural and constructivist theory in relation hand, there are radical constructivists who take discourse and linguistics more seriously. Theory[ edit ] Constructivism primarily seeks to demonstrate how core aspects of international relations are, contrary to the assumptions of neorealism and neoliberalismsocially constructed, that is, they are given their form by ongoing processes of social practice and interaction.
Alexander Wendt calls two increasingly accepted basic tenets of Constructivism "that the structures of human association are determined primarily by shared ideas rather than material forces, and that the identities and interests of purposive actors are constructed by these shared ideas rather than given by nature".
According to this view, the fundamental structures of international politics are social rather than strictly material. This leads to social constructivists to argue that changes in the nature of social interaction between states can bring a fundamental shift towards greater international security.
Specifically, international politics is primarily determined by the fact that the international system is anarchic — it lacks any overarching authority, instead it is composed of units states which are formally equal — they are all sovereign over their own territory.
Such anarchy, Neorealists argue, forces States to act in certain ways, specifically, they can rely on no-one but themselves for security they have to self-help. The way in which anarchy forces them to act in such ways, to defend their own self-interest in terms of power, neorealists argue, explains most of international politics.
Because of this, Neorealists tend to disregard explanations of international politics at the "unit" or "state" level. It only forces states to self-help if they conform to neorealist assumptions about states as seeing security as a competitive, relative concept, where the gain of security for any one state means the loss of security for another.
If states instead hold alternative conceptions of security, either "co-operative", where states can maximise their security without negatively affecting the security of another, or "collective" where states identify the security of other states as being valuable to themselves, anarchy will not lead to self-help at all.
Crucially, because Neorealists fail to recognize this dependence, they falsely assume that such meanings are unchangeable, and exclude the study of the processes of social construction which actually do the key explanatory work behind neorealist observations. Now that actors are not simply governed by the imperatives of a self-help system, their identities and interests become important in analysing how they behave.
Like the nature of the international system, constructivists see such identities and interests as not objectively grounded in material forces such as dictates of the human nature that underpins classical realism but the result of ideas and the social construction of such ideas.
In other words, the meanings of ideas, objects, and actors are all given by social interaction. People give objects their meanings and can attach different meanings to different things. Studies of such processes are examples of the constructivist attitude towards state interests and identities.
Such interests and identities are central determinants of state behaviour, as such studying their nature and their formation is integral in constructivist methodology to explaining the international system.
But it is important to note that despite this refocus onto identities and interests—properties of states—constructivists are not necessarily wedded to focusing their analysis at the unit-level of international politics: Constructivists such as Finnemore and Wendt both emphasise that while ideas and processes tend to explain the social construction of identities and interests, such ideas and processes form a structure of their own which impact upon international actors.
Their central difference from neorealists is to see the structure of international politics in primarily ideational, rather than material, terms. In an important edited volume, The Culture of National Security,  constructivist scholars—including Elizabeth Kier, Jeffrey Legro, and Peter Katzenstein - challenged many realist assumptions about the dynamics of international politics, particularly in the context of military affairs.
Biersteker and Cynthia Weber  applied constructivist approaches to understand the evolution of state sovereignty as a central theme in international relations, and works by Rodney Bruce Hall  and Daniel Philpott  among others developed constructivist theories of major transformations in the dynamics of international politics.
In international political economythe application of constructivism has been less frequent. Notable examples of constructivist work in this area include Kathleen R. However, Wendt renders anarchy in cultural rather than materialist terms; he also offers a sophisticated theoretical defense of the state-as-actor assumption in international relations theory.
This is a contentious issue within segments of the IR community as some constructivists challenge Wendt on some of these assumptions see, for example, exchanges in Review of International Studiesvol.
It has been argued that progress in IR theory will be achieved when Realism and Constructivism can be aligned or even synthesized. Sterling-Folker argued that the U. They argue that "mainstream" constructivism has abandoned many of the most important insights from linguistic turn and social-constructionist theory in the pursuit of respectability as a "scientific" approach to international relations.Cognitive Constructivism.
Cognitivist teaching methods aim to assist students in assimilating new information to existing knowledge, as well as enabling them to make the appropriate modifications to their existing intellectual framework to accommodate that information. Piaget’s theory has two main strands: first, an account of the.
What is constructivism in international relations? realists that international politics is shaped by the rational-choice behaviour/decisions of egoist actors who pursue their interests by making utilitarian calculations to maximize their benefits and Constructivism is a theory that examines state behavior in the context of state.
Three basic assumptions characterised this theory: that learning is manifested by a change in behaviour, that the environment shapes behaviour and that the principles of contiguity and reinforcement are central to explaining the learning process.
Constructivist theorists believe that learning is a process where individuals construct new ideas or concepts based on prior knowledge and/or experience. Each of us generates our own mental models, which we use to make sense of our experiences. Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism: Comparing for translating theory into practice.
In each case, the respective author highlighted the informa- cognitive, and constructivist) which provide structured foundations for planning and . International Relations, Principal Theories Anne-Marie Slaughter TABLE OF CONTENTS Liberal theorists have often emphasized the unique behaviour of liberal States, 19 Constructivism is not a theory, but rather an ontology: A set of assumptions about the.