Cristoforo Colombo was an Italian navigator and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. The best available documentation suggest Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa to a weaver. However, theories exists suggesting that Columbus may have been Catalan or Portugese. In four consecutive travels to the Caribbean from toColumbus remained convinced that he had reached the Indies, and so he named the people "Indians.
In a deed of primogeniture, Columbus writes: Siendo yo nacido en Genova Bien que el coerpo ande aca el coracon esta ali de continuo Although a few people consider this letter suspect, the vast majority of scholars believe it genuine.
The most scrupulous examination by graphologists testifies in favour of authenticity. In the spring ofColumbus collected notarized copies of all the writings concerned with his rights to the discovery of new lands. To this same Oderico he handed over the letter to the Bank of Saint George, in which he announced that he was leaving the bank one-tenth of his income, with a recommendation for his son Diego.
Oderico returned to Genoa and delivered the letter to the bank, which replied, on 8 December lauding the gesture of their "renowned fellow-citizen" towards his "native land". The reply, unfortunately, never reached its destination; Columbus, back in Castile after his fourth voyage, complained about this in another letter to Ambassador Oderico, dated 27 Decemberand promptly annulled the bequest.
The first letter was preserved in the archives of the Bank of Saint George until it was taken over by the municipality of Genoa; the other three remained in the Oderico family archives untilwhen they were donated to the Republic of Genoa. After the fall of the Republic, they passed to the library of one of its last senators, Michele Cambiaso, and were finally acquired by the city of Genoa.
The list of contemporary ambassadors and historians unanimous in the belief that Columbus was Genoese could suffice as proof, but there is something more: The conviction is tied to the debt of Domenico — together with his son Christopher explicitly stated in the document — toward a certain Girolamo del Porto.
In the will dictated by Admiral Christopher Columbus in Valladolid before he died, the authentic and indisputable document which we have today, the dying navigator remembers this old debt, which had evidently not been paid.
There is, in addition, the act drawn in Genoa on 25 August by a notary, Girolamo Ventimiglia. It involves a lawsuit over a sugar transaction on the Atlantic island Madeira. In it, young Christopher swore that he was a year-old Genoese citizen resident in Portugal and had been hired to represent the Genoese merchants in that transaction.
Here was proof that he had relocated to Portugal. It is important to bear in mind that at the time when Assereto traced the document, it would have been impossible to make an acceptable facsimile. Inthis was still impossible. An act dated 11 October says: Christopher Columbus, Admiral of the King of Spain, and that any expenses that said Giovanni must make in order to see said M.
Christopher must be paid by all three of the aforementioned brothers, each one to pay a third In a fourth notarial act, drawn in Savona on 8 AprilSebastiano Cuneo, heir by half to his father Corrado, requested that Christopher and Giacomo called Diegothe sons and heirs of Domenico Colombo, be summoned to court and sentenced to pay the price for two lands located in Legine.
A group of Genoese citizens, under oath, said and say, together and separately and in every more valid manner and guise, that Christopher, Bartholomew and Giacomo Columbus, sons and heirs of the aforementioned Domenico, their father, have for a long time been absent from the city and the jurisdiction of Savona, as well as Pisa and Nice in Provence, and that they reside in the area of Spain, as was and is well known.
Finally, there is a very important sixth document from the notary of Bartolomeo Oddino, drawn in Savona on 30 March Columbo was in turn said to be descended from a legendary Roman General Colonius. It is now widely believed that Christopher Columbus used this persona to ingratiate himself with the aristocracy, an elaborate illusion to mask a humble merchant background.
However, he refers to "those two illustrious Coloni, his relatives. At the top of page 4, Ferdinand listed NerviCogoletoBogliascoSavona, Genoa and Piacenza all inside the former Republic of Genoa [nb 8] as possible places of origin.
But he changed it in order to make it conform to the language of the country in which he came to reside and raise a new estate In chapter ii, Ferdinand accuses Agostino Giustiniani of telling lies about the discoverer: Thus this Giustiniani proves himself to be an inaccurate historian and exposes himself as an inconsiderate or prejudiced and malicious compatriot, because in writing about an exceptional person who brought so much honor to the country In chapter v, he writes: And because it was not far from Lisbon, where he knew there were many Genoese his countrymen, he went away thither as fast as he could Ferdinand also says chapter xi that before he was declared admiral, his father used to sign himself "Columbus de Terra rubra," that is to say, Columbus of Terrarossaa village or hamlet near Genoa.
In another passage, Ferdinand says that his father went to Lisbon and taught his brother Bartholomew to construct sea charts, globes and nautical instruments; and sent this brother to England to make proposals to Henry VII of his desired voyage.
The publication of Historie has been used by historians as providing indirect evidence about the Genoese origin of Columbus. Many contemporary writers agree that the discoverer was Genoese: It has been ascertained that the manuscripts had been completed beforealthough they were published in the Eighteenth century.
Chapter 66 in the second manuscript, "Descubrimiento das Ilhas de Castella per Collombo," explicitly states, "Christovan Colombo italiano. They were discovered in the year of the Arabic calendar. It is said that a Genoese infidel, Columbus by name, discovered the place.
Two islands, Hispaniola and Isabella:The painful and violent testimony of cruelties incurred by the Spanish conquistadors in the new world, concisely depicted by Bartolomé de Las Casas in his "Brevísima relación de la destruyción de las Indias", is both a terrible accusation and a warning addressed at Prince Phillip of Spain.
The triumph of Secular Humanism's preference for unbacked paper money has empowered the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to crush more poor Latin Americans than Columbus could ever dream of. Christopher Columbus (/ k ə ˈ l ʌ m b ə s /; before 31 October – 20 May ) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
Throughout the late 19th century, and well into the ′s, Africans and in some cases Native Americans, were kept as exhibits in zoos.
Far from a relic from an unenlightened past, remnants of such exhibits have continued in Europe as late as the ′s. Christopher Columbus ( - ) Christopher Columbus (in Italian: Cristoforo Colombo) was an Italian navigator and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings.
The best available documentation suggest Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa to a weaver. Saint John Fisher: Saint John Fisher, English humanist, martyr, and prelate, who, devoted to the pope and to the Roman Catholic church, resisted King Henry VIII of England by refusing to recognize royal supremacy and the abolition of papal jurisdiction over the English church.
Ordained priest in .