Modifiers[ edit ] Familiaritytransfer-appropriate processingthe self-reference effectand the explicit nature of a stimulus modify the levels-of-processing effect by manipulating mental processing depth factors. Familiarity[ edit ] A stimulus will have a higher recall value if it is highly compatible with preexisting semantic structures Craik, According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure. The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli.
Early life[ edit ] Craik was born in EdinburghScotland as the eldest of three siblings. A year and a half into his life, his family relocated to the small market-town of LockerbieScotland.
His initial career aspiration was to be a minister or a carpenter. He excelled in physicsenglishand biological sciences which helped change his career aspirations upon graduating high school. Together, they raised two children - Lindsay b. While he found neurologyphysiologyand psychiatry interesting, anatomical catalogues were challenging and tiresome and the company of sick patients were not of interest.
While completing his final undergraduate year in psychology, Craik was introduced to experimental psychology.
He completed his undergraduate thesis on the effect of rate of information processing on time perceptiona topic that was heavily influenced by George Miller and his workings. His time at the University of Edinburgh also facilitated his exposure to theoretical psychology. Gibsonand some ethologists while another course introduced him to memory and learning.
By the time Craik was ready to graduate with his bachelor of science, he began to realize his interests were in attention and perception. This job allowed Craik to make connections with the Department of Psychology at the University of Liverpool in which he was accepted for graduate studies.
During his time working for the MRC, Craik investigated age-related changes in confidence and decision-making abilities. While working here, Craik was also able to gain exposure to on-going research in other MRC-based branches.
The work that he completed throughout this tenure here formed the basis of his Ph. Following his graduation inthe appeal of emerging cognitive psychological views became a newfound interest. Later inCraik accepted his first faculty position at Birkbeck College over the following six years.
During this time, his research focus shifted entirely to memory processes. Following a NATO-sponsored meeting on memory inCraik was offered the opportunity to act as a visiting professor at the University of Toronto by fellow attendee and prominent psychologist, Endel Tulving.
As an abundance of memory-based research was being conducted by Endel Tulving and his colleagues at the University of Toronto, Craik and his family permanently relocated to Toronto in At the University of Toronto, Craik worked as an association professor of psychology at the Erindale Campus in and eventually the St.
Craik felt that memory must incorporate a series of analyses as well that range from shallow to deep, with the varying depths of encoding representing different levels of memory processing. Together, with Robert Lockhart, Craik co-wrote an article on the levels-of-processing that rivaled the previously accepted Atkinson-Shiffrin memory model at the time.
This article changed what was previously thought on how memory is processed and stored in the human mind and gained support as the new paradigm for memory processing. A follow-up article was done by Craik and Tulving in which provided more evidence for this new model through a series of experiments.
A large portion of this research was possible because of the conception of the Rotman Research Institute at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care in northern Toronto - an institution that Craik helped conceive. He is currently continuing to pursue his research interests as a senior scientist at the Rotman Research Institute, investigating various linkages between memory, attention, and cognitive aging.Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated the people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence.
This research highlighted the effectiveness of. Start studying Craik and Tulving (). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Tulving & Thomson, ); it is hard to reconcile such a finding With the view that the probability Of retrieval depends only On some unidimcnsional strength.
With regard to an independent index Of processing depth. Craik and Lockhart () suggested that. When other things. The aim of the Craik & Tulving study was to test the levels of processing framework, which claims that the best recalled,material is that which has been processed by meaning.
Also it was hypothesized that depper processing would take longer than shallow processing. Craik & Lockhart's Levels of Processing theory opposes this, suggesting that our ability to recall information is dependent not upon which store it is in, but to what extent we have "processed" or "rehearsed" a piece of information.
Craik & Tulving wanted to test whether the level of processing affected how well we remember information. By "depth of processing", we mean, the way in which a person thinks about a piece of information, for example, a shallow level of processing of a word would be to .