Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time. We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world.
Causality - What are causes, mechanisms, and the like? We casually refer to causes and effects in normal interactions all the time.
We all conduct our lives — choosing actions, making decisions, trying to influence others — based on theories about why and how things happen in the world. From the early stages of childhood we attribute causes, building a vision of the social and physical world that makes it understandable.
Every action, every choice about what to do, is based on our anticipation of its effects, our understandings of consequences.
Analytical and scientific reasoning has a similar form, but requires that we approach causation more systematically and self-consciously. Analytical Task The general analytical problem.
In this and other societies, women and men commonly dress differently.
Prepare a causal analysis that seeks to explain why women and men dress differently. Our analytical task this week is to attempt a "simple" causal analysis of a gender difference that is obvious but not often questioned - the way we dress.
The purpose of this exercise is to get us thinking about causality. To the degree that we can, we want to try to think of different kinds of causes based on varied ways of framing the causal question.
Realistically, one could easily write a book about all the possible ways of interpreting this causal question and answering it.
We are just trying to develop some sensible insights in a couple pages. The starting point of most causal analyses is a comparison. When we start with the general question "what causes X? Examples of such questions might be "why do people in group A do X more than those in group B?
If we are trying to explain some phenomenon, X, then we need to identify variations in the likelihood of X or the rate of X, and look for potential causes that 1 vary across the relevant circumstances in a way that could explain X and 2 that we can connect to the outcomes for X in some way.
For example, with the gender distinctive clothing question, some ways to better specify the question and look at it through comparisons are: What causes individual conformity to the cultural pattern? What induces women and men to conform to the expectations for dressing differently?
Whenever we observe a consistent pattern of social behavior, some common conditions or processes must be inducing people to act in a similar way.
Figuring out what encourages conformity and discourages deviance allows us to provide a causal explanation. Think about what happens to people who do not conform to the expectations about male and female appropriate clothing.Gender factors, such as women’s status and empowerment (i.e., in education, employment, intimate partner relationships, and reproductive health), are linked with women’s capacity to access and use maternal health services, a critical component of maternal health.
Analyzes the social causes of gender inequality. How has the economy influenced men's and women's positions in society? Analyses of gender inequality attribute great importance to the economy. President’s main goals for her years in office is to use government power to improve gender inequality and the status of women.
Your job is to.
Views gender inequality as stemming from the unequal power of men and women in a capitalist society, which leads to the explotiation of women by fathers and husbands. Under this system, women are considered a commodity worth possessing, much like land or money.
THE CONCEPT OF GENDER.
The gender perspective looks at the impact of gender on people's opportunities, social roles and interactions. Successful implementation of the policy, programme and project goals of international and national organizations is directly affected by the impact of gender and, in turn, influences the process of social development.
For example, family, penal, and citizenship laws throughout the region relegate women to a subordinate status compared to their male counterparts. This legal discrimination undermines women’s full personhood and equal participation in society and puts women at an increased risk for violence.
Causes, protective and risk factors Gender inequality and discrimination are root causes of violence against women, influenced by the historical and structural power imbalances between women and men which exist in varying degrees across all communities in the world.