Kautilya 's " Arthashastra ", a statecraft manual of the same era, contains hundreds of recipes for creating poison weapons, toxic smokes, and other chemical weapons. Ancient Greek historians recount that Alexander the Great encountered poison arrows and fire incendiaries in India at the Indus basin in the 4th century BC.
Football team of British soldiers with gas masks, Western front, It all began with the French Army, who used tear gas in the form of small grenades. The French issued a redesign on the tear gas, and from here, weapon use expanded to other gases and agents such as mustard gas, phosgene, and chlorine.
Chemical weapons were dangerous, as they could be undetectable as well as deadly. Because of this, they were a popular choice on the battlefield. Whether used to cause nuisance or pain, chemical weapons played a large role in World War I. Mustard gas is particularly dangerous as it can take several hours to appear.
Soldiers who were burned by the gas would see large blisters form where the chemical had touched them. When inhaled, mustard gas caused internal burns and blisters and could lead to breathing issues.
British infantry advancing through gas at Loos, 25 September Sternutator Gases such as phosgene, chlorine, and diphosgene. These gases caused pain in the chest as well as pain in the eyes and nose. They could also cause choking, nausea, vomiting, coughing and sneezing.
Lachrymator, or tear gas. The gas was more of a nuisance than anything and was virtually ineffective with a gas mask. Development and Early Chemicals Football team of British soldiers with gas masks, Western front, The French were the first to employ chemical weapons, using tear gas in August of The gas was filled in 26mm grenades and contained a very low amount of tear gas, which made it unnoticeable to troops.
Because of this, the active ingredient was changed from bromine to chloroacetone in the second wave of tear gas grenades that were issued to French troops. This made the gas a little stronger, but not by a substantial amount.
This attack was a disappointment, however, as the chemical froze instead of vaporizing. The Germans would find more success just a few months after the attack, using a different gas. German scientist Fritz Haber, who had overseen the production of chlorine as a chemical weapon, pushed for the chemical to be used in warfare.
Loading a battery of Livens gas projectors.A Brief History of Chemical War Since the dawn of warfare people have sought new ways to kill one another. Here are some notable moments in chemical warfare through the ages. The early 20th century was an especially rich time for creating new ways to process food and for understanding old ways of preservation.
More in Features. in , publicity given to the threat of chemical warfare during the Gulf War, and the announcement of a bilat- s China and Abyssinia Use of chemical weapons in China and Abyssinia.
Biological Weapons Convention Comprehensive BW prohibition - parties, 10 signatories by , but Chemical Weapons History. Sebastian Balfour recalls the use and effects of chemical warfare during, and after, the early decades of the twentieth century.
Sebastian Balfour recalls the use and effects of chemical warfare during, and after, the early decades of the twentieth century.
Chemical Warfare in the s & 30s. Chemical weapons were used by a number of countries in the s and s, and the discovery of powerful nerve gases in the late s renewed interest in the field. All the major powers involved in World War II anticipated that large-scale chemical warfare would take place; however, chemical weapons were never used on European battlefields, for reasons historians still debate.
The history of chemical weapons As with Ethiopia and China in the s, the stigma on the use of chemical weapons was apparently lessened when the victims had few friends in the outside world. Europe, World War I million casualties, 90, fatalities from chemical weapons; first large-scale use of CW at Ieper, Belgium.
s Morocco Use of chemical weapons in Morocco. Geneva Protocol Ban on CW use, but no prohibition on development, etc. s China and Abyssinia Use of chemical weapons in China and Abyssinia.