Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour.
Housing Primary Enclosures The primary enclosure usually a cage, pen, or stall provides the limits of an animal's immediate environment. Acceptable primary enclosures Allow for the normal physiologic and behavioral needs of the animals, including urination and defecation, maintenance of body temperature, normal movement and postural adjustments, and, where indicated, reproduction.
Allow conspecific social interaction and development of hierarchies within or between enclosures.
Make it possible for the animals to remain clean and dry as consistent with the requirements of the species. Allow the animals access to food and water and permit easy filling, refilling, changing, servicing, and cleaning of food and water utensils.
Provide a secure environment that does not allow escape of or accidental entrapment of animals or their appendages between opposing surfaces or by structural openings.
Are free of sharp edges or projections that could cause injury to the animals. Allow observation of the animals with minimal disturbance of them. Primary enclosures should be constructed with materials that balance the needs of the animal with the ability to provide for sanitation. They should have smooth, impervious surfaces with minimal ledges, angles, corners, and overlapping surfaces so that accumulation of dirt, debris, and moisture is reduced and satisfactory cleaning and disinfecting are possible.
They should be constructed of durable materials that resist corrosion and withstand rough handling without chipping, cracking, or rusting. Less-durable materials, such as wood, can provide a more appropriate environment in some situations such as runs, pens, and outdoor corrals and can be used to construct perches, climbing structures, resting areas, and perimeter fences for primary enclosures.
Wooden items might need to be replaced periodically because of damage or difficulties with sanitation. All primary enclosures should be kept in good repair to prevent escape of or injury to animals, promote physical comfort, and facilitate sanitation and servicing. Rusting or oxidized equipment that threatens the health or safety of the animals should be repaired or replaced.
Page 24 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The National Academies Press. Generally, the purpose of these systems is to minimize the spread of airborne disease agents between cages or groups of cages.
They often require different husbandry practices, such as alterations in the frequency of bedding change, the use of aseptic handling techniques, and specialized cleaning, disinfecting, or sterilization regimens to prevent microbial transmission by other than the airborne route.
Rodents are often housed on wire flooring, which enhances sanitation of the cage by enabling urine and feces to pass through to a collection tray. However, some evidence suggests that solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is preferred by rodents Fullerton and Gilliatt ; Grover-Johnson and Spencer ; Ortman and others Solid-bottom caging, with bedding, is therefore recommended for rodents.
Vinyl-coated flooring is often used for other species, such as dogs and nonhuman primates. IACUC review of this aspect of the animal care program should ensure that caging enhances animal well-being consistent with good sanitation and the requirements of the research project.
Sheltered or Outdoor Housing Sheltered or outdoor housing—such as barns, corrals, pastures, and islands-is a common primary housing method for some species and is acceptable for many situations. In most cases, outdoor housing entails maintaining animals in groups. When animals are maintained in outdoor runs, pens, or other large enclosures, there must be protection from extremes in temperature or other harsh weather conditions and adequate protective and escape mechanisms for submissive animals.
These goals can be achieved by such features as windbreaks, shelters, shaded areas, areas with forced ventilation, heat-radiating structures, or means of retreat to conditioned spaces, such as an indoor portion of a run.
Shelters should be accessible to all animals, have sufficient ventilation, and be designed to prevent buildup of waste materials and excessive moisture. Houses, dens, boxes, shelves, perches, and other furnishings should be constructed in a manner and made of materials that allow cleaning or replacement in accord with generally accepted husbandry practices when the furnishings are excessively soiled or worn.
Floors or ground-level surfaces of outdoor housing facilities can be covered with dirt, absorbent bedding, sand, gravel, grass, or similar material that can be removed or replaced when that is needed to ensure appropriate sanitation.
Excessive buildup of animal waste and stagnant water should be avoided by, for example, using contoured or drained surfaces. Other surfaces should be able to withstand the elements and be easily maintained.Importance of Conservation Saving wildlife and wilderness is the responsibility of all thinking people.
Greed and personal gain must not be permitted to decimate, despoil and destroy the earth’s irreplaceable treasure for its existence is essential to the human spirit and the well-being of the earth as a whole. “The assumption that animals are without rights and the illusion that our treatment of them has no moral significance is a positively outrageous example of Western crudity and barbarity.
For Andrea Gavinelli of the European Commission, animal welfare is a societal concern and it is important that it be included in the sustainability agenda, "The welfare of animals is not only about changing values, but about added value for all those involved", concluded Gavinelli.
in the same environment. The interaction between plants and animals often exists out of the need for food, protection, transportation, and reproduction. The different kinds of interaction possible between organisms are extremely important in determining the abundance of species.
World Wildlife Fund is committed to endangered species protection. See how we are ensuring that the world our children inherit will be home to the same species we enjoy today. Beyond the need to recognize and put an end to animal cruelty for the sake of the animal victims involved, also important is the very direct connection between animal cruelty and human violence.
In response to this crisis, many domestic violence shelters have begun to partner with local animal protection agencies to create "safe havens" for the.